Bring a large saucepan of salted water to a boil. Add the cauliflower and simmer for 5 minutes. Scoop the cauliflower out and set aside.
If using dry pasta, add the pasta to the same pan and bring to a boil, then reduce the heat and simmer for 4 minutes less than the time specified in the package directions. Drain and return to the pan.
Mix half the cooked cauliflower into the cooked pasta, then pour this into a medium casserole dish and set aside.
Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F.
Return the pan to the stove with the oil over medium heat. Add the flour and cook, stirring, for about 1 minute. Add the milk, drizzling it in a bit at a time and stirring well between additions. Add the smoked paprika, garlic, and most of the cheese, reserving a heaping tablespoon for sprinkling.
If using a handheld blender, put the reserved, cooked cauliflower and miso (add more if you like) into a beaker with a tablespoons of the hot milk mixture and blend until smooth. Return to the pan, stir until smooth, then pour over the pasta and cauliflower in the casserole dish.
If using a countertop blender or food processor, pour the hot milk mixture into the blender with the reserved, cooked cauliflower and miso and blend carefully until smooth. Pour over the pasta and cauliflower in the dish. Mix it all together and give it a taste. I added a few more pinches of salt.